Università degli Studi di Milano, 2010-12-13
The object of this PhD Thesis is light and matter quantum interaction including studies on cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics (CQED and cQED), quantum information theory and entanglement dynamics in open systems. In recent years both theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to study problems regarding the transfer of quantum correlations, quantum memories, entanglement protection against decoherence and new regimes accessible in cQED. One of the fundamental model underlying these topics is the well known Jaynes-Cummings (JC) one for light-matter interaction, introduced in quantum optics already in 1963. This paradigmatic model describes the coherent exchange of a single excitation between a qubit (a two-level system) and a mode of a quantized harmonic oscillator. The JC model describes a lot of purely quantum effects such as Rabi oscillations and generation of entangled quantum states, which were confirmed by several sophisticated experiments in CQED. This model has been then applied in many other frameworks. Analytical results can be derived only under the so-called rotating wave approximation (RWA), which allows to neglect the energy contributions coming from the counter-rotating terms, which describe the simultaneous excitation (or de-excitation) of the qubit and the field mode. In this Thesis a first interesting investigation, based on the JC model, is related to the realization of quantum memories. The main aspect is the transfer of generic quantum entangled states of a propagating radiation to some qubits, such as two-level atoms placed in separated optical cavities. Generalizing previous results for bipartite entangled systems, I investigated the more complex case of tripartite systems, where the very quantification of entanglement is still an open problem. This issue is broadened to open systems in contact with a common environment which induces decoherence effects unavoidable in realistic implementations. The main result of this analysis is that it is possible to map in an optimal way a quantum state from radiation to qubits in the unitary dynamics, and even in the presence of a dissipative environment a significative amount of entanglement can be transferred. This study has been carried on with either theoretical calculations or numerical simulations performed adopting the powerful Monte Carlo wave function method. A second important problem for quantum memories faced in this PhD Thesis, regards the protection of qubits entanglement for long enough times in order to implement quantum information tasks. A possible way to obtain this goal is to add an external coherent field driving two or more two-level atoms interacting with a common mode of a cavity electromagnetic field. In fact it is possible to demonstrate that, under certain conditions, an effective Hamiltonian of the whole system involves, together with the familiar JC terms, also the counter-rotating ones. The main feature that comes out from this analysis is the possibility to freeze, during system dynamics, peculiar quantum entangled states of the atomic qubits in so called decoherence-free subspaces. This important property allows to store the entanglement in matter qubits, isolating the quantum state from environment induced decoherence. Though the system includes dissipation, analytical results have been obtained for multipartite entanglement and decoherence by solving the master equation through a projection on a suitable basis and using the method of characteristics. In particular it is possible to monitor the rate of decoherence via measurements of joint atomic probabilities, shading light on the fascinating border between the quantum and the classical world. A last topic investigated in this Thesis concerns the recently developed and quite promising implementation of the JC model well outside CQED, that is cQED. Here superconductive circuits, which play the role of artificial atoms, interact on-chip with transmission line resonators, instead of the usual electromagnetic cavities. These systems have the advantage of being quite easily engineered exploiting the most advanced available technologies. Moreover they allow a great flexibility in handling the relevant parameters, since the inter-system coupling is here of capacitive or inductive nature, instead of the usual electric dipole interaction in CQED. In this way a strong and ultrastrong coupling regime have become available, giving a direct access to the physics beyond the JC model and its possible applications. I first performed a detailed characterization of system dynamics in order to test the main approximations usually introduced to describe superconductive circuits as qubits. Then I described, both analytically and numerically, the dissipative dynamics of a superconductive qubit coupled to a resonator mode in the deep strong regime..
diritti: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
tutor: Federico Casagrande ; tutor: Matteo Paris ; coordinatore: Marco Bersanelli ; referee: Luigi Lugiato
Settore FIS/03 - - Fisica della Materia

Tesi di dottorato. | Lingua: Inglese. | Paese: | BID: TD16000118