Metodi per la valorizzazione del patrimonio geologico, dal rilevamento geomorfologico all’itinerario geoturistico. Applicazioni in ambiente urbano e naturale [Tesi di dottorato]

This research develops within the framework of a recent, widespread, need to give space to the popularization of Earth Sciences and to highlight the scientific work in these disciplines. The geological heritage is an essential part of the cultural heritage of a territory and it needs land planning, conservation, valorisation and dissemination. In the context of sustainable development, different forms of "thematic" tourism have grown in recent years, including the geotourism. The scientific community is increasingly involved in the economic development of the territory, through the research on geological heritage too. Different aspects are being studied: -the analysis of the territory for the recognition of geological aspects of scientific interest; -their evaluation; -the analysis of the risks to which they are subject and the conservation strategies; -the strategies for the use of the sites, the understanding of scientific aspects by users and tools for the mediation of knowledges. Aim of the research Through the scientific literature and the direct knowledge of an area it is possible to understand the geological heritage value, depending on its conservation and enhancement. For this reason institutions, public and private structures involved in land management often address to the universities and to the research to develop territories potential through the use of geo-environmental information, education, dissemination and sustainable management of the landscape. The aim of this thesis was to prepare a methodological procedure for the geoheritage enhancement, that defines the steps for the analysis of an area, beginning from the geomorphological survey to the creation and dissemination of instruments to popularize the geological heritage. The procedure has been developed starting from pure research, but aimed to its direct application as a guideline for the institutions and structures mentioned above. Study areas The development of the methodological procedure is supported by verifying its functionality through the application on two areas. A natural area, the mountain range of Monti Ernici (Southern Lazio) of known geomorphological interest and of interesting cultural aspects related to karst phenomenon; and an urbanized area, the city of Rome, characterized by the enormous knowledge accumulated in bibliography and the great potential of its geological and cultural heritage. The application of the method involved the geomorphological survey of the areas and the production of thematic cartography. Were inventoried and evaluated the geosites and geomorphosites characterizing the two territories and their data were organized in a relational database, functional to the processing for the automathic choice of geotourist trails. For each area was developed an enhancement proposal. This PhD thesis presents the research work describing it in three parts and an appendix. Part I The first part develops in three chapters introducing the context in which the work fits in. In Chapter 1, summarizing the remarkable bibliography consulted, are introduced the terms of geological heritage and the definitions adopted among the various developed in the history of this kind of studies. In particular geological goods are described as part of the cultural heritage and the definition of geosite is explained through its historical evolution (Strasser et al., 1995; Grandgirard, 1997, 1999; Wimbledon et al., 1999), its increasing specificity depending on the fields of application (Panizza & Piacente, 1999, 2003; Panizza, 2001) and through the definition of descriptive attributes of the quality of a geological site (Reynard, 2004, 2005). Some important concept are introduced such as geodiversity and geoconservation, and the application concepts of “geodiffusione” (spreading geological knowledges, Piacente, 2003) and geotourism (Hose, 1995, 2000; Newsome & Dowling, 2010; Gray, 2011; Arouca Declaration, 2011). The Chapter 2 is a retrospective of the projects, the research and the legislation about geological heritage, starting from the understanding of the need to safeguard geodiversity such as biodiversity. This excursus is a pan of the national and international initiatives. It is highlight the importance of Geoparks initiative, under the auspices of UNESCO, and the Italian Geological Service's role in launching the national-level projects. Particular attention was paid to the state of the art in the Latium region, to mark the starting point of the work on the study areas. The Latium regional geosites inventory was arranged by the Regional Park Agency-ARP (Cresta et al., 2005), in the context of initiatives undertaken by the Geological Survey, in collaboration with it and with the Latium Region. The ARP provided the geosites evaluation too, developing an evaluation model that indexes the Intrinsic Value of Sites of Geological Interest (VISIG). This index allows to give a priority order to the protection and preservation of geosites. The Regional Park Agency also contributed to the promulgation of regional laws for the geosites protection (D.G.R. Lazio 859/09). In the Chapter 3 are described the interventions of the research on geological heritage, in particular the axis on which the studies develop (evaluation, protection, popularization) and the problems they face. The first paragraph introduce the results of international and national research on the evaluation models of geological heritage goods. There are different models depending on the purpose of the evaluations, which can be summed up in three kinds: awareness and conservation of geosites (Panizza & Piacente, 1993; Serrano & Gonzales Trueba, 2005; Pereira et al., 2007; Fattori & Mancinella, 2010; Coratza et al., 2012), environmental impact assessments (Rivas et al., 1997; Coratza & Giusti, 2005; Bruschi & Cendrero, 2005), education and/or local development through thematic tourism (Reynard, 2007; Bollati, 2012). The same type of description is made of the tools developed for the protection, legislation and management of geosites, which concerns the administration of the territory. Management is also the issue of the vulnerability of the sites, exposed to flows of visitors, but also the vulnerability of the visitors in the presence of active geosites and, in particular, active geomorphosites (Reynard, 2004). Finally, are described the geo-heritage enhancement strategies on which the majority of studies concentrate: geotourist trails planning (Coratza et al., 2004; The Via Geoalpina VVAA, 2010; Del Monte et al., 2013; Magagna et al., 2013) virtual and non-virtual ones, static mapping (Carton et al., 2005; Castaldini, 2005; Coratza & Regolini-Bissig, 2009; Regolini-Bissig & Reynard, 2010 and bibliography inside; Regolini, 2012 ) and dynamic (Ghiraldi et al., 2009, 2010), the preparation of informational supports, panels, guides and smartphones applications (Small, 2005; Qiu & Hubble, 2012 e bibliography inside; Magagna et al., 2010; divulgando.eu), methods for the scientific information interpretation (Cayla, 2009; Dowling, 2010; Calonge, 2010; Cardozo Moreira, 2012) and in conclusion the evaluation of the efficacy of these products (Sellier, 2009; Martin et al., 2010). The chapter closes by raising issues like the need for a uniform methodology of analysis, the disclosure of evaluations and the need to use the environmental interpretation, particularly in the geotourist cartography. Part II In this part of the thesis are shown the purpose of the work, the methods chosen to built the enhancement procedure and the integrations improved on the methods, to optimize the purposes. The Part II develops in two chapters in which it deals with the revision of several existing methods for the inventory, evaluation and enhancement of the geological heritage (methods chapter). The other chapter (materials chapter) describes the instruments chosen for enhancement and summarize the work in the proposal for a methodology that allows to start from the territory to get to its usability in geotourist terms. The chapter 4 refers to methods consulted for each step of the analysis and geotourist enhancement of an area, then arousing the interest on the integretions. Bibliographic consultation, for example, based on scientific publications, is complemented by tourist and popularization ones, such as data about the historical-archaeological heritage. This informations are needed for the enhancement of cultural landscapes in which the geosites are inserted. Among the methods for the analysis and the representation of the areas there are the geomorphological survey and mapping. In the paragraph related to the materials of enhancement the geotourist mapping methods are described and the proposal of a model for geotourist map legend. The selection and integrations of the inventory and evaluation methods constitute the fundamental element of the chapter. The methods have been analyzed and dismantled in their parts to build a new inventory and evaluation card: it contains informations open to every kind of reader and it shows the significance of a site for geotourism. The card is based on two models: the geosite inventory card by ISPRA (Italian insitute for Environmental Protection and Research, isprambiente.it) and the geosite evaluation model proposed by the ARP (Latium Regional Park Agency; Fattori & Mancinella, 2010). The integrations to this methods are described below. Geosite inventory card: • the information given is useful and essential (the document is simple, easy to read and it uses a non-specialist language); • the iconographic and representative aspects of the geological site are widely highlighted (images, maps, explanatory schemes of genetic processes); • the scientific description is in non-specialist terms and it is based on the interpretation of scientific language (Ham, 1984); • in the card are described scientific interests of the site and additional

diritti: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
In relazione con info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/hdl/11573/918338

Tesi di dottorato. | Lingua: Italiano. | Paese: | BID: TD18047250