Advanced radiating systems based on leaky wave and nondiffracting waves [Tesi di dottorato]

In recent years, microwave, millimeter-wave, and THz applications such as medical and security imaging, wireless power transfer, and near-field focusing, just to mention but a few, have gained much attention in the area of ICT due to their potentially high social impact. On one hand, the need of highly-directive THz sensors with tunable radiating features in the far-field region has recently boosted the research activity in the design of flexible, low-cost and low-profile devices. On the other hand, it is of paramount importance to focus energy in the near-field region, and thus the generation of limited-diffraction waves in the microwave and millimeter-wave regime is a topic of recent increasing interest. In this context, leaky-wave theory is an elegant and extremely useful formalism which allows for describing in a common fashion guiding and radiating phenomena in both the near field and the far field, spanning frequencies from microwaves to optics passing through THz. In this PhD thesis we aim to exploit the intrinsic versatility of the leakywave approach to design advanced radiating systems for controlling the far-field radiating features at THz frequencies and for focusing electromagnetic radiation in the near field at millimeter waves. Specifically, the use of relatively new materials such as graphene and liquid crystals has been considered for the design of leaky-wave based radiators, achieving very promising results in terms of reconfigurability, efficiency, and radiating capabilities. In this context, an original theoretical analysis has provided new general formulas for the evaluation of the radiating features (e.g., half-power beamwidth, sidelobe level, etc.) of leaky-wave antennas. Indeed, the current formulations are based on several simplifying hypotheses which do not allow for an accurate evaluation of the beamwidth in different situations. In addition to the intriguing reconfigurable capabilities offered by leaky waves in far-field applications, interesting focusing capabilities can be obtained in the near field. In particular, it is shown that leaky waves can profitably be used to generate limited-diffraction Bessel beams by means of narrow-band radiators in the microwave range. Also, the use of higher-order leaky-wave modes allows for achieving almost the same performance in the millimeter-wave range, where previous designs were subjected to severe fabrication issues. Even more interestingly, the limited-diffractive character of Bessel beams can also be used to generate limited-diffraction pulses as superpositions of monochromatic Bessel beams over a considerable fractional bandwidth. In this context, a novel theoretical framework has been developed to understand the practical limitations to efficiently generate limited-diffraction, limited-dispersion pulses, such as X-waves, in the microwave/millimeter-wave range. As a result of this investigation, a class of wideband radiators has been thoroughly analyzed, showing promising capabilities for the generation of both zeroth-order and higher-order Xwaves. The latter may pave the way for the first localized transmission of orbital angular momentum in the microwave range.

diritti: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
In relazione con info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/hdl/11573/943920
GALLI, Alessandro
valutatori esterni: L. Tarricone, F. Medina-Mena, A. Toscano, R. Sauleau
tutor esterno: M. Ettorre
DI BENEDETTO, Maria Gabriella
Settore ING-INF/02 - - Campi Elettromagnetici

Tesi di dottorato. | Lingua: Inglese. | Paese: | BID: TD18047971